Science, Technologies, Innovations №3(15) 2020, 25-32 p

http://doi.org/10.35668/2520-6524-2020-3-03

Berezniak N. V. — Senior Researcher of State Institution “Ukrainian Institute of Scientific and Technical Expertise and Information”, Antonovich Str., 180, Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680; +38 (044) 521-09-67; bereznyak@uintei.kiev.ua; ORCID: 0000-0002-0125-2213

Shabranska N. I. — PhD in Economics, Senior Researcher of State Institution “Ukrainian Institute of Scientific and Technical Expertise and Information”, Antonovich Str., 180, Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680; +38 (067) 367-90-14; tasha.stanker@gmail.com; ORCID: 0000-0001-7731-281Х

NEW TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNOLOGICAL
AND INNOVATION POLICIES OF THE WORLD COUNTRIES: THE OECD VISION

Abstract. A new direction of science, technology and innovation policy, initiated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), has been investigated. The proposed OECD paradigm of new mission-oriented policies encompasses initiatives aimed at overcoming public challenges in the world and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals 2030 (UN), which is especially relevant for Ukraine. The general characteristics of the instruments of political influence and interaction are given. These instruments are the “mix” of policies that aim to implement direct and indirect forms of support. The examples of developing the national strategic documents and supporting a sustainable economy in the OECD member countries are considered. Highly developed countries introduce special instruments that promote breakthrough innovations to implement strategic priorities. The OECD notes the feasibility of creating different types of institutions that will be responsible for defining national strategies and shaping science, technology and innovation policies. The challenges and trends of political support for innovative business by the OECD member countries are described. The governments of these countries are initiating the formation of new directions and the use of new public policy instruments, in particular: a combination of fiscal instruments and direct support instruments, simplified access to financing schemes and increased transparency through the creation of a “single window” or digital support services, etc.

Keywords: Business innovation, open innovation, initiative, support tools, science, technology and innovation policy, STI policy, OECD, breakthrough innovation, innovation development strategy, “mix” of policies, societal challenges.

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